Historical Resume¢ from 1785 to 1896
For the part taken by Dauphin county (which was then a part of Lancaster county) in the struggle for Independence, our readers must refer to those volumes of the Second Series of Pennsylvania Archives, which comprise a history of the Pennsylvania Line, the Associators and the militia, in the war of the Revolution, from 1775 to 1783. The rolls of many of the companies which went out from this section and participated in the sanguinary conflicts and which achieved the independence of their country, are, we are glad to say, nearly complete. At that period the entire country was so bare of men that the old men, women and the lads of ten and twelve years, not only did the planting and harvesting, but took up arms to defend their homes in the threatened invasion by Indians and Tories after the massacre of Wyoming. A great majority of those who served from Paxtang, Derry, Hanover, Upper Paxtang and Londerry were styled Associators, officered by those of their own choosing, and serving short terms of duty, as called upon by the Supreme Executive Council. At Trenton, at Princeton, at Brandywine, at Germantown, at the Crooked Billet and the Paoli, the militia of Dauphin County fought and bled and died. A glance at their names even shows a long line of heroes, whose brilliant achievements shed an underlying glory on the patriotism of this section of Lancaster county in the war of the Revolution.
With the dawn of peace, the people of the county returned to their usual avocations. Civil affairs were taken cognizance of, and movements were at once made to secure the formation of a new county, with Harrisburg as the seat of justice. By the act of Assembly of March 4, 1785, the county of Dauphin was separated from Lancaster, its name derived from the eldest son of the then king of the French – France at that period, in consequence of its efficient aid to the Colonies, being uppermost in the affection of the people. The enthusiasm was unbounded, and, as we shall refer to hereafter, carried to extreme lengths. The name was suggested by the prime movers for the formation of the new county. The seat of justice was fixed at Harris’ Ferry, then a village of about one hundred houses, although the town was not actually laid out or surveyed until after the passage of the ordinances referred to. In the commissions of the officers of the new county, the town was named Louisburgh, in honor of Louis XVI, suggested by Chief Justice Thomas M’Kean, not only on account of his French leanings, but to show his petty spite against Mr. Harris, to whom, somehow, or other, he held political opposition.
This act of injustice was subsequently remedied, when, on the 13th day of April, 1791, the town was created a borough, by the name of Harrisburg. It was undecided for awhile whether to call the place Harris’ Ferry or Harrisburg. The latter, fortunately, was adopted.
On the organization of the county, Middletown was the largest village in the county, and strenuous efforts were made by its citizens and the inhabitants of the townships subsequently forming Lebanon county, to make it the seat of justice; while similar claims were made for the town of Lebanon, on account of its central location.
The machinery of the new county was soon put into motion, the earliest record of whose courts read this:
"At a court of quarter sessions, holden near Harris’ Ferry, in and for the county of Dauphin," &c., on the "third Tuesday of May, in the year of our Lord 1785, before "Timothy Green, Samuel Jones and Jonathan McClure, Esqrs., justice of the same court."
We may imagine the scene, in a small room in a log house near the "lower ferry," at Front and Vine streets, with a jury particularly intelligent – an excellent set of county officers, and such a bar as Ross, Kittera, Chambers, Hubley, James Biddle, Hanna, Andrew Dunlop, Reily, Collinson Reed, Jasper Yeates, John Joseph Henry, Thomas Duncan and Thomas Smith, most of whom rose to occupy the highest positions at the bar or in the Senate – quite a show of famous men to start the judicial engine of the new county, with the net result of convicting William Courtenay, a descendant of one of the proudest houses of England, and sentencing him to eighteen lashes, fifteen shillings fine, and "to stand in the pillory." This instrument of judicial vengeance stood about sixty yards below the grave of John Harris, the elder, or just above the ferry house, at the junction of Front and Paxtang streets. This, doubtless, was the exact position, as two or three of the first courts were held in a building on what is now the southern corner of Front street and Washington avenue. There was no citizen of Harrisburg on the first jury, except, perhaps, Alexander Berryhill, but that is not certain. Col. James Cowden, of Lower Paxtang township, was the foreman of this grand jury.
The sheriff of Lancaster county exercised the same office in Dauphin county. The names of the jurymen were James Cowden (foreman), Robert Montgomery, John Gilchrist, Barefoot Brunson, John Clarke, Roan McClure, John Carson, John Wilson, William Crain, Archibald McAllister, Richard Dixon, John Parthemore, James Crouch, Jacob Awl, William Brown, Andrew Stewart, James Rogers, Samuel Stewart, John Cooper, Alexander Berryhill. Alexander Graydon was the first prothonotary and Anthony Kelker the first sheriff.
The minutes of the second court held in the town are dated at "Harrisburgh," and on the 3d of August, 1786, the following endorsement appears on the docket: "The name of the county town, or seat of the courts, is altered from ‘Harrisburgh’ to ‘Louisburgh,’ in consequence of the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth so styling it in the commissions of the justices of said town."
The courts were held for several successive years in the same locality, but subsequently in the log house recently demolished on the southeast corner of Market street and Dewberry alley. From here it was removed to its present location, except during the sessions of the Legislature from 1812 to 1822, when the court occupied the brick building built by the county commissioners on the corner of Walnut street and Raspberry alley. The present edifice was erected in 1860.
The act of Assembly erecting Harrisburg into a borough defined its limits as follows:
"Beginning at low-water mark on the eastern shore of the Susquehanna river; thence by the pine-apple tree north 60¼ degrees, east 79 perches, to an ash tree on the west bank of Paxton creek; thence by the several corners thereof 323 perches to a white hickory on William Maclay’s line; thence by the same south 67¾ degrees, west 212 perches, to a marked chestnut-oak on the eastern bank of the Susquehanna; thence by the same course to low-water mark to the place of beginning."
The borough limits were extended by the act of the 16th of April, 1838, as follows:
"The northwestern boundary line of the borough of Harrisburg shall be and the same is hereby extended and enlarged as follows: Extending it along the river line to the upper line of the land of the late William Maclay, on said river; thence to Paxton creek, and thence along said creek to the northwestern corner to the present boundary." Thus annexing, Maclaysburg, or all the territory included in the borough then lying northwest of South street.
During the so-called Whiskey Insurrection, 1794, Harrisburg became quite prominent, it being on the great thoroughfare to the western counties. The court house was then building, and some of the sympathizers with the anti-excise men beyond the mountains hoisted a French flag on that structure. Of course this gave offense and it was quietly removed. Several arrests were made of individuals who expressed sympathy for the western insurgents – one of whom, Major Swiney, was confined in prison for nearly a year, when he was released without trial. Governor Mifflin, who was an excellent stump speaker, made one of his characteristic addresses here, and in two days time no less than three companies from the town were on the march to Carlisle. When Governor Howell, of New Jersey, and his brilliant staff remained over night, they were so hospitably entertained by the citizens that he returned his thanks in special orders. On Friday, the 3d of October, when the President, the great and good Washington, approached the town, he was met by a large concourse of the people and the enthusiasm was unbounded. The worthy burgesses, Conrad Bombaugh and Alexander Berryhill, presented the address of the town, to which the chief magistrate briefly replied, bearing "testimony to the zealous and efficient exertions" they had made. That evening he held a reception at his headquarters, where the principal citizens embraced the opportunity of paying their respects to the venerated chieftain. On the morning of the 4th he crossed the river at the upper ferry, which was fifty yards above the present Harrisburg bridge.
About this period came the fever of 1793-5 and the mill-dam troubles. For two years previous a disease of a malignant type prevailed during the summer season in the borough. Its origin was proved beyond doubt to be due to a mill-dam located in what is now the first ward of the city, on Paxtang creek. In 1793, during the prevalence of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, it was thought and even pronounced such. Quite a number of Irish emigrants died, and although many of the inhabitants were attacked there were no fatal cases among them. This was proof positive that the endemic was due to the damming up of the Paxtang creek, which was always "dead water" (its Indian significance), producing malarial poisoning. The ancestors, reasoning rightly, their next move was to get rid of the nuisance. Meetings were held, committees were appointed, funds raised and tendered to the owners of the mill, Peter and Abraham Landis, the amount demanded by them the previous year for their property. The impecunious millers now required a greater sum, but the citizens positively refused, and at a public meeting they resolved that a further tender be made the Landises and in case of refusal to "prostrate the dam and pay, if necessary, the "porportionable parts of all legal expenses and damages that might accrue on any suits or indictments which might be bought or prosecuted in consequences of such acts." The forefathers were not to be trifled with, and suiting the action to the word, met at a given hour and opened the dam. Eventually the parties compromised – the Landises accepted a certain sum and the town secured the mill right. The valuable papers relating to this interesting epoch in the history of
Harrisburg are in the possession of the Dauphin County Historical Society. The entire transaction was creditable to the ancient Harrisburger, and the decendants of the men who then stood up for the right of the people are among the most prominent of our citizens to-day.
In 1798, when a war with France was imminent and a call made by the General Government on Pennsylvania for troops, an unusual excitement was created, and several companies tendered their services to the governor. The storm blew over, and as in 1807, when a war was threatened with Great Britain – no occasion for troops were required until five years later – when the second struggle with England took place. Among the prominent military organizations which armed for the conflict were the companies of Captains Thomas Walker, Richard M. Crain, John Carothers, Jeremiah Rees, Thomas M’Ilhenney, Peter Snyder, John B. Moorhead, James Todd, Richard Knight, John Elder, Isaac Smith, Philip Fedderhoff and Gawen Henry, quite a formidable array. Some of these marched as far as Baltimore at the time of the British attack on that city, while others went no farther than York. None of these companies had an opportunity to meet the enemy on the sanguinary field – but Dauphin county men composed the major portion of two companies which joined the Canada expedition. The heroes of this conflict are nearly all passed from off the stage of life. Following in the footsteps of the fathers of the Revolution, they emulated their heroism and devotion to the liberties of their country.
The removal of the seat of government to Harrisburg, although suggested as early as 1787, and often moved in the Assembly, did not prove successful until by the act of February, 1810, when "the offices of the State government were directed to be removed to the borough of Harrisburg, in the county of Dauphin," "within the month of October, 1812," and "the sessions of the Legislature thereafter to be held." The first sessions of the Assembly were held in the court house, and that body continued to occupy the building until the completion of the capitol.
No historical resume of Dauphin county can be called complete without some reference to the so-called "Buckshot War" of 1838. At the October election of that year David R. Porter, of Huntingdon, was chosen governor, after a hotly contested political canvass, over Governor Ritner. The defeated party issued an ill-timed and ill-advised address, advising their friends "to treat the election as if it had not been held." It was determined, therefore, to investigate the election, and to do this the political complexion of the Legislature would be decisive. The majority of the Senate was Anti-Masonic, but the control of the House of Representatives hinged upon the admission of certain members from Philadelphia whose seats were contested. The votes of one of the districts in that city were thrown out by reason of fraud, and the Democratic delegation returned. The Anti-Masonic return judges refused to sign the certificates, "and both parties made out returns each for a different delegation, and sent them to the Secretary of the Commonwealth." The Democratic returns were correct, and should have been promptly received "without question."
When the Legislature met, the Senate organized by the choice of Anti-Masonic officers.
In the House, a fierce struggle ensued, both delegations claiming seats. The consequence was that each party went into an election for speaker, each appointing tellers. Two speakers were elected and took their seat upon the platform – William Hopkins being the choice of the Democrats and Thomas S. Cunningham of the opposition. The Democrats believing that they were in the right, left out of view the rejection of the votes of the Philadelphia district. However, when the returns from the Secretary’s office were opened, the certificate of the minority had been sent in, thus giving the advantage to the Anti-Masons. It was then a question which of the two Houses would be recognized by the Senate and the Governor.
At this stage of the proceedings, a number of men (from Philadelphia especially) collected in the lobby and when the Senate after organization proceeded to business, interrupted it by their disgraceful and menacing conduct. The other branch of the Legislature was in like manner disturbed, and thus both Houses were compelled to disperse. The crowd having taken possession of the halls proceeded to the court house, when impassioned harangues were indulged in and a committee of safety appointed. For several days all business was suspended and the governor, alarmed for his own personal safety, ordered out the militia under Major Generals Patterson and Alexander came promptly in response. For two or three days during this contest, the danger of a collision was imminent, but wiser counsels prevailed, and the Senate having voted to recognize the section of the House presided over by Mr. Hopkins, the so-called "Insurrection at Harrisburg" was virtually ended. This was what is commonly known as the "Buckshot War."
In the war with Mexico, consequent upon the annexation of Texas, among the troops which went out to that far-off land to vindicate the honor of our country and preserve its prestige, was the Cameron Guards, under command of Capt. Edward C. Williams. They made a good record, their heroic conduct at Cerro Gordo, Chapultepec and the Garreta de Belina, won for them high renown and the commendation of their venerated commander-in-chief. Scarce a corporal’s guard remains of that gallant band.
Coming down to later times, when the perpetuity of the Union was threatened and the great North rose up like a giant in its strength to crush secession and rebellion, the events are so fresh in the remembrance of all that we shall only refer to them in brief. The first public meeting held after the firing upon Fort Sumter in the State of Pennsylvania, and in fact the first in any northern city, was in the court house at Harrisburg, Gen. Simon Cameron being chairman thereof. Dauphin county, foremost in tendering men and means to the government for the bitter, deadly strife, furnished her full quota of volunteers. Twice Harrisburg was the objective point of the Confederate troops, and at one time (June, 1863) the enemy’s picket was within two miles of the city. Active preparations were made for its defense and fortifications erected on the bluff opposite, and named "Fort Washington." This was the only fortification deserving a name erected in any of the Northern States. Rifle pits were dug along the banks of the river, in front of Harris Park, and every preparation made to give the enemy a warm reception. The Union victory at Gettysburg checked the further advance of the Confederates and with it the last attempts to invade the North. It would take volumes to rehearse not only the heroism of the sons of Dauphin county on the battlefield, but the deeds of mercy and charity and love of the noble-hearted women. We need not speak of the gallantry of the lamented Simmons and the six hundred brave dead- stricken down on the field of battle, in the hospital or in the loathsome prison, or yet of the heroes only a few of whom are living – Knipe and Jennings, the Awls, Porter, Williams and Jordan, Witman and Davis, Detweiler, McCormick and Alleman, Savage, Geety and Hummel, and many others- a long line of illustrious names – officers and privates of that immense force which Dauphin county sent out from her midst for the preservation of the Union. The location of the first and greatest military camp in the Northern States was within the limits of Harrisburg – named by Generals Knipe and Williams in honor of the Chief Magistrate of Pennsylvania. Camp Curtin, which with being the central point of communication, especially with the oft-beleagured Federal Capital made it a prominent rendezvous. From the commencement of the war, the charity of the citizens was unbounded and without stint, the doors of hospitality freely opened, and to our honor be it said, two citizens, Messrs. John B. Simon and Eby Byers, established the Soldiers’ Rest, where the sick and wounded patriot, on his way homeward, found rest, and refreshment and gentle care. Thousands were kindly ministered to, and until the "boys came marching home" the good work went on unabated. In every cemetery and graveyard within the borders of Dauphin county lie the remains of her brave and true sons, while in the cemetery at Harrisburg the grass grows green over the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers from far-off States. In all the struggles for life, for liberty, for right and for the Union, Dauphin county had been in the van. But these dark days of our country have passed like "a dream that has been told." May the lesson taught be heeded by those who come after us – that the Union of States is not a rope of sand which may be broken at the will of any section.
The subject of international improvements was one which early commanded, the attention of the citizens of Pennsylvania, and one hundred years ago, as now, communication with the western country was the great aim of the business men of Philadelphia. The first effort was the removal of obstructions in the various streams, and especially that of the Susquehanna river; and although a considerable amount of money was eventually spent in improving the navigation thereof, the result was far from satisfactory. Previous to the Revolution (1774), the attention of the Provincial Assembly was called to this matter, and as a preliminary it was proposed to lay out a town or city on that stream. John Harris, the founder of our city, immediately gave notice of his intention of laying out a town, which seemed to quiet the movement of undoubted land speculators. The Revolution coming on, such enterprises, if ever seriously considered, were abandoned. No sooner, however, came peace, than the business activity of the people sought out new channels – roads were made, attempts at slackwater navigation ventured on – until finally Pennsylvania canal, from Columbia to Pittsburgh, opened up an avenue to trade, and bought prosperity to all the towns on its route. On none had it better effect than Middletown and Harrisburg, and the former place at one period was destined to retain a supremacy in population, enterprise, wealth and influence. It was a great lumber mart; the Union canal and its admirable location always made it a rival to the capital city.
Previous to the opening of the Pennsylvania canal the transportation facilities of the town were confined to Troy coaches or stages for passengers and Conestoga wagons, great lumbering vehicles with semi-circular tops of sail-cloth, drawn by six stalwart horses, for goods of various descriptions. This was expensive – and the completion of the public improvements was an eventual era in the progress and development of this locality. Real estate advanced, commission and other merchants established themselves on the line of the canal, rope and boat manufactories were erected and various enterprises inaugurated, giving new life to the town and thrift and prosperity to the people. Several lines of passenger packets were established, and it was considered a wonderful thing when four packet boats arrived and departed in a single day. The consuming of three days and a half to go to Pittsburgh began to be deemed slow, and the building of railroads opened up another era in the development of the country. In September, 1836, the first train of cars entered the limits of Harrisburg over the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster railroad. Following this effort, other rapid transit enterprises were carried forward to completion until at the present time – when no less than one hundred trains of passenger cars arrive and leave Harrisburg daily for different points. We give these facts to show not only how great the travel, but the wonderful progress made in transit.
In the year 1860 Harrisburg received its highest corporate honors-that of a city. Although at the time arousing much opposition, yet its subsequent growth and prosperity have fully realized the fondest expectations of its earnest advocates. In population its ranks sixth in the State, and in manufacturing interests it is third-Pittsburgh and Philadelphia alone exceeding it-while in the Union it ranks high among the inland cities. Its citizens are proud of its prosperity, of its importance and its high social position, and look forward to the time when the "Greater Harrisburg" will take prominent place among the cities of the American Union.
On the 19th of July, 1877, while the governor and commander-in-chief of the forces of Pennsylvania was on his way to visit the Pacific Coast, a general strike was inaugurated by the employes of nearly all the railroads in the United States. In many portions of the Commonwealth the municipal and county authorities failed to restore traffic, and for several days the rioters, for such proved to be, had control of affairs. The burning of the round-house depot, and cars at Pittsburgh, and the attack of a reckless and infuriated mob upon the soldiery at that place, gave cause for great uneasiness and alarm. Travel was suspended on all the railroads centering at Harrisburg.
Sunday, the 22d, was one of great suspense. The authorities, however, were quietly preparing for the emergency. That evening, one by one, the City Grays found their was to the arsenal, which had been defenseless. On Monday the Mexican trophy cannon were duly spiked, but the mob, increased by tramps, showed signs of disquiet, and affairs were assuming such a situation that became suddenly alarming. The sheriff, Colonel Jennings, returned to Harrisburg on Monday afternoon and found the city in the power of the mob; the proclamation of the mayor of the day previous availing little. The sheriff met the committee of citizens, and when Mayor Patterson informed him that his power to quiet affairs had been exhausted, at once took measure to preserve peace and quiet and restore order. A proclamation was issued calling upon the law-abiding citizens to aid him in the faithful discharge of his duty. The city was placed under military rule, and the sheriff summoned all reputable citizens for the support of "law and order."
In the afternoon quite a number of Philadelphia soldiers, who had reached Fairview on the west side of the Susquehanna, surrendered their arms to a handful of rioters, who, with increasing numbers, bought the former to the city, marching them through Market street to the depot. It was a pitiable sight, and only proved what was in store had not the prompt measures of Colonel Jennings checked this ebullition of outlawry.
On Monday night the rioters, several hundred in number, began breaking into the stores, ostensibly for guns, but in reality for pillage. At this juncture the sheriff gathered the citizens, and placing himself at their head, came upon the mob, who soon dispersed, while upwards of thirty were arrested and placed in prison. On Tuesday twelve hundred of the citizens organized into "law and order" companies, paraded through the city, and from that time, during the emergency, the citizens patrolled the city, preserving order, without calling to their assistance the military. Governor Hartranft, in the subsequent message to the Assembly, highly complimented the example of the officers and the citizens of the Capital City.
In the meantime the military gathered for the defense of the different railroads so as to insure peace and restore traffic, and when this was accomplished the citizen-soldiery returned to their homes.
One of the most important events connected with the erection of the county of Dauphin, and the founding of the city of Harrisburg, was the celebration of their one hundredth anniversary. As the act for erecting part of the county of Lancaster into a separate county, to be called the county of Dauphin, was passed March 4, 1785, at noon Wednesday, March 4, 1885, the bells and whistles throughout the county announced the completion of the first centennial of its existence. On the 14th of April, 1885, the founding of the city was celebrated by the Dauphin County Historical Society. But owing to circumstances, which it is not necessary to have to particularize, the time for the general celebration was fixed for the second week in September, 1885. On Sunday, September 13, 1995, commemorative discourses were delivered in nearly all of the churches of the city and county, while interesting services suitable to the occasion were held in the various Sunday-schools. The first day’s celebration on Monday, September 14, was called "Children’s Day," when over five thousand pupils of the various schools marched in procession to Harris Park, when open exercises were held. At noon on that day in the court house commemorative addresses were delivered by the Governor of the Commonwealth, Robert E. Pattison, the Hon. John W. Simonton, judge of the district, Simon Cameron Wilson, mayor of the city of Harrisburg, Judge Hiester, Major Mumma and others. In the evening at the same place, the historical address was made by Judge McPherson, followed by the centennial poem by Dr. Charles C. Bombaugh, a native of Harrisburg, with remarks by General Cameron and Governor Ramsey, of Minnesota. The second day, Tuesday, was "Military and Civic Day." In display and the number of men in line, in connection with the magnificent weather and the large attendance, the enthusiasm was exceedingly great. The third day, Wednesday, was "Industrial Day," and the county and city covered themselves with glory; proud, indeed, of their achievements, and grateful that their people gave such evidence of the respect of the world. The fourth day, Thursday, was given to the fireman, who wound up the celebration with real centennial splendor. Over and above all, however, was the antiquarian display, which had been inaugurated by the Dauphin County Historical Society, and which has been conceded to have been the most unique, as it was the most successful exhibition of the kind ever held in this or any other country. The extent of the exhibition was of a marvelous character and the wonder and surprise of the citizens, as well as of the strangers within the city’s gates. The entire centennial anniversary proved one of the greatest successes in the history of modern times. Perchance no public manifestation or display of any character did so much to benefit a city as the celebration of 1885. Through its industrial parade it showed to the world the resources of the city and county, and the grand successes of its varied industries. Shortly after a board of trade was organized, and through it much has been done to make Harrisburg one the greatest manufacturing cities in the Union.
The "Greater" Harrisburg is approaching. The first clamor for admission to the municipality was from the township on the north-the site of that historic spot, "Camp Curtin." Other sections will no doubt soon follow. The ordinance of November 28, 1895, extending the boundaries reads:
"That all that piece or parcel of land beginning at a point in the center of Cameron street, thirty-five (35) north of the south side of Maclay street; thence westwardly along Maclay street and thirty-five (35) feet, north of the south side of Maclay street, and by this line continued across Susquehanna river, to low water mark on the west shore of the Susquehanna river, about nine thousand, six hundred and seventy feet (9,670); thence northwardly along the west shore of the Susquehanna river, and the low water line of the same, about six thousand, one hundred and ten (6,110) feet to the center of Park Lane extended; thence eastwardly by the center of Park lane extended; thence eastwardly by the center of Park lane extended and the center of Park lane about nine thousand, six hundred and fifty (9,650) feet to the center of Cameron street, as laid out on the City Official Plat; thence southwardly through the center of Cameron street, about three thousand, four hundred and forty (3,440) feet, to the place of beginning, containing one thousand and sixty acres, more or less, and being a part of the township of Susquehanna."
Before concluding this historical resume of Dauphin county it is eminently proper that some allusion be made to the intellectual and religious culture of our people. The pioneer settlers who opened up this region of country to civilization were not adventurers, but they came to American for religious liberty, and they planted a new government in this western world, resting upon the immutable foundations of education and Christianity. Whether Scotch-Irish or German, they brought with them their Bible, their minister and their schoolteacher, and today, in referring to the educational history of Dauphin county, the results must speak for themselves. Although within the limits of the county there are no extensive educational institutions, yet, from border to border, the public school system gives to everyone the advantages of a high education. Over half a million of dollars is annually expended for tuition and the erection of school buildings. One-sixth of the population is in attendance upon the schools, and the facilities in the larger cities for educational advancement are such as to fit the pupils either for the ordinary business walks of life of for the advanced curriculum of the leading colleges and universities of America.
As to the religious training of the early settlers, one need only refer to the churches as almost coeval with the coming of the first pioneer. Prior to 1725 the Presbyterian churches of Derry, Paxtang and Hanover were in a state of organization. These have had a remarkable history, but the limits of this brief sketch will not allow more than this allusion. Following these early landmarks of the Scotch-Irish settlement came the organization of the Reformed and Lutheran churches. With them in order came others, until now within the limits of the county, on every hillside and in every nook and corner of its towns and townships, can be recognized the achievements of the fathers, who have bequeathed to us the blessings of literary culture and religious freedom. Keeping pace with these Christian movements, benevolent institutions have sprung up in all parts of the city and county. Few districts in any State of the Union are better provided than our own county with the advantages the people of to-day possess and enjoy.