Commemorative Biographical Encyclopedia of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, pages 44-55

Transcribed by Becky Tuszynski ( for The Dauphin County Pennsylvania Genealogy Transcription Project (
12 October 2000
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Early Settlers and Settlements In the "Upper End."

Perchance no more interesting data can be furnished by the gleaner in historic fields than those of a reminiscential character; and owing to this fact we have concluded to give within the limits of this brief chapter various facts relating to the settlement and the early settlers of the "Upper End" of Dauphin county. The information was gathered twenty years ago [1876], which may account for references to individuals then living, but who have since passed off the stage of life. This should be borne in mind by the reader.

How the Early Settlers Lived.

Little we know, in this day of comfort and luxury, how our ancestors fared. Although the elder settlers had some sheep, yet their increase was slow, owing to the depredations of wolves and other animals. It was, therefore, a work of time to secure a crop of wool. Deerskin was a substitute for men and boys, and all generally wore leather breeches; and occasionally women and girls were compelled to resort to the use of the same materials. The women did the spinning and generally wove all the cloth for the family, the men being engaged in clearing and cultivating the soil, or with their trusty rifle went in search of deer or other game for food. Our early settlers, Scotch-Irish as well as German, had large families, and it required the continued labor of the wife and mother to provide them with anything like comfortable clothing. The men were not insensible to this devotedness on the part of their wives, but assisted in whatever was necessary, even in the cookery and the cases were few where they could not do all the work of the house. The patient endurance, however, of the women we commend to the ladies of the present. That endurance did not arise from a slavish servility or insensibility to their rights and comforts, but justly appreciating their situation, they nobly encountered the difficulties which could not be avoided. Possessing all the affections of the wife, the tenderness of the mother, and the sympathies of the women, their tears flowed freely for other’s griefs, whilst they bore their own with a fortitude which none but a woman could exercise. The entire education of her children devolved on the mother, and notwithstanding the difficulties to be encountered, she did not allow them to grow up without instruction, but amidst all her numerous cares taught them to read and instructed them in the principles of Christianity. Noble matrons! Your achievements have come down to us through a hundred years for our admiration and example.

Settlement of Uniontown.

David Snyder, Esq., of Lykens, gave us this is statement of the early settlement of Snydertown, now known as Uniontown:

The land upon which Uniontown is located was bought from the Hepner heirs by John Snyder, in 1818. The heirs were George, Christian, Peter and Henry. The land was sold by George Hepner and John Balthaser, executors, the whole tract being 360 acres. The principal street was laid out in 1818, simultaneously with the laying out of the town. The only road prior was a wagon-road leading from the stone mill, now owned by Isaac Boyer, to the left, and continuing eastward, north of Main street, to the old mill now standing in the eastern part of the town. Philip Derger built the first house, which stands in a street leading from the old cemetery northward to Main street. This was in 1819. The first church was a Union Reformed and Lutheran, built about 1834, now used for a dwelling and stands on the hill back of Boyer’s hotel. The first school house stood on the same street, built in the year 1828. One hundred lots were first laid out by John Snyder, and seventy-five of these were sold by him for $30 each—the balance for one-half price. No elections were held in the town until it became a borough, the people being compelled to go to Berrysburg for the purpose of voting. The first physician was Dr. Ensweiler, who came there about 1838 and remained about four years. John Snyder, the founder of Uniontown, died about 1855, in Mercer county, at the age of 72 years. Philip Derger came from Berks county and subsequently moved to the West. Mr. Snyder paid $8,000 for the whole tract. It was owned before Hepner by Peter Hain.

Settlement of Wiconisco.

The late Christian Seip, of Wiconisco, to whom we were indebted for much information relating to the history of Lykens Valley, furnished this data:

The number of houses in and about Wiconisco in 1846 was probably not twenty. A man by the name of Lance built the first house in Wiconisco, where the Methodist church now stands. He now lives in Pottsville. Another house stood in the swamp, below the railroad, then occupied by a man named Wagner. Michael Shaeffer built the tavern now occupied by Neiffer. He never lived to take possession of it—died before it was completed and was buried in the old graveyard near the company’s stables. He first kept tavern in an old frame house near the dirt bank. Many of the first miners boarded with him. Behind the old breaker there were two houses—one occupied by Mr. Couch, the company's superintendent. Michael Shaeffer, with his brother Henry, came from Germany with their father when mere boys. It is thought from Hesse Darmstadt. An old block house near the company’s stables was the meeting house—Methodist. Mr. Shaeffer took the coal trucks down to Millersburg with horses. The track began behind the old breaker. At that time "shin-plasters" were in vogue. The miners received no more than four dollars a week. Six dollars was considered very high wages. A man by the name of Frederick Alvord then received the highest wages, eight dollars per week, for blacksmithing for the company. In the beginning the trucks were only driven once a week to Millersburg, in trains of eight or ten. Drove only gangways then—no breasts. Mr. Bordner drove the first gangway of the Short Mountain mines. During the earlier mining period the men were paid only every three or four months.

Old Settlers of Lykens.

Joshua Bowman, Esq., of Lykens, whose memory of the early days of Lykens and vicinity were [sic] quite vivid, gave us the following:

Passed through what is now Lykens in 1840. Was then living with my parents on the property adjoining the Forge. The first house then in Lykens was Ferree's house, now occupied by the brick buildings of Charles Martz. The second, Zerbe's, opposite Squire Ferree's. Next the Conner house, but lately demolished for the erection of the brick house of William A. Wallace. Stehley’s stood in the woods near the creek. Next Kissley's, owned by Jacob Bordner. Next an old log house, built by the Fegley's, now occupied by Isaac Derger. Next Patrick Martin's, now Leah Martin's, his wife. Next John Sheean's, now occupied by Gorman & Hensel's foundry. There was a two-story and a-half frame house near the creek, back of the Valley House, on what is now Water street. This was built by Edward Myers for a man by name of Fisher. No store in Lykens at that time. Merchandise of every sort was chiefly brought from the store of Josiah Bowman, at the Forge. The other store in all this part of the country was that of Henry Shaeffer's, at the Lykens Valley colliery. Some few of the people worked in the mines, others employed themselves in the manufacture of shingles, spokes, posts and stays, which they traded for the necessities of life. No church at that time; but a place of worship in an old school house near the company's stable. The company then mined coal without preparation. It was taken by horse railway to Millersburg, then flatted across the Susquehanna to Mt. Patrick, on the opposite side, and placed on the canal boats of the North Branch for shipment to Harrisburg. There was no public house at that time. The company would not tolerate any upon its own grounds, and would not sell ground for hotel purposes. Jacob Stehley, a gentleman at large, who died at Harrisburg a few years ago, rather eccentric, yet very entertaining and full of wit and humor—in his latter days fond of hunting and fishing—"botched" in the woods at that time, supported by his son John, at Harrisburg. Mr. Stehley was about sixty years of age, and quite intelligent, full of information and lively when in company, which he tried to avoid, preferring the life of a hermit. The mail was gotten at Thomas Harper's, at the Forge. Isaac Ferree was quite an old man then. Had sons running a saw mill in "Greenland"—the only saw mill then about. The mill in "Greenland" was erected in 1840, by the Ferree's—Joel, Jefferson, Washington, Uriah and Jacob. Shortly afterwards the mill at Round Top was erected by the same parties, and the one at Greenland abandoned. The elections were held at the tavern of Michael Shaeffer. Deer were plenty—bear also—fish in abundance—wild turkeys. The men employed in the mines about twenty. The old Lykens Valley breaker was erected in 1845-7. No breaker in 1840. The mines were then a mere drift. In 1853 there were about fifty houses in Lykens. About the same number in Wiconisco. The orders in 1853 were the American Mechanics and Sons of Temperance. No Odd Fellows at that time. They organized shortly after. The orders mentioned met in John Hensel's building on Main street, second story, steps on the outside leading up. No minister then resident in Lykens. Preaching in the stone church, Lykens, the only church then, by Watson, it is thought. The first railroad consisted of wrought-iron tacked on wooden rails—called by the natives the "Slabtrack" road.

The Early History of Gratz.

To George Hoffman, Esq., of Gratz, are the citizens of that locality indebted for the information which follows:

Ludwig Shoffstall, who came from Lancaster county, built the first house in Gratz—a two-story log, yet standing. Ed. Umholtz (tavern) lives in it. Frey kept his store in it for a long time—he then attached the tavern. Conrad Frey built the tavern about 1820. These buildings were followed in the succession named by the log dwellings of Matthias Bellow, Faust, Rev. Handel, Daniel Fegley, Anthony Matthias, Squire Reedy and John Reichard. The first church was the brick, built in 1832—German Reformed and Lutheran. The first pastors, Revs. Isaac Gerhardt and John Peter Shindel. Before the brick church was erected meetings were held by the said pastors in an old log structure, built for that purpose by Simon Gratz. The first school house was built in 1822 by Eli Buffington, the carpenter of the old Hoffman church, which he erected about 1771. The original Simon Gratz donated the ground. Rev. Anthony Hautz was the first pastor of the old Hoffman church. He came back when he was seventy-five years of age—a very small, gray-headed man, about five feet in height. A grist mill was built quite early, about a quarter of a mile from town, by one John Salladay, and ran by a stream of water from a spring—wheel over twenty feet high. Mr. Salladay was one of the first settlers. Jacob Loudenslager was also one of the old settlers—lived about the present town, and had patented 400 acres in one tract. Old John Hoffman lived about a quarter of a mile south of the Hoffman church. Andrew Hoffman lived east of Jacob Loudenslager a quarter of a mile and had patented about 100 acres. Peter Stein, adjoining, had 300 acres. Peter Hoffman lived down the Wiconisco creek, a mile this side of the Forge, and had 400 acres. The Pottsville road was made about twenty years ago. The old Reading road about 1800. Peter Hain owned the Gap west of town. The Gap was named for him. He originally owned the lands upon which Uniontown is now situated, before Hepner. Adam Heller laid out Berrysburg. He lived where Daniel Romberger now lives, which was formerly called Hellerstown. He was a very lazy, indifferent man. The place where the brick church is now located, near Gratz, was formerly called Wild Cat Ridge, on account of the great number of wild cats congregating there. Conrad Frey came from Reading, Pa. The Methodist church was built in 1846.

Early Families in the "Upper End."

Benjamin Buffington, the first of the name who located in Lykens Valley, was an early settler there. He came from Berks county, died in 1814, and was buried in the graveyard at Short mountain by request. His sons were Eli, George, Levi, and John. Eli settled near Gratz, where his grandson Jeremiah now resides. He married Elizabeth Kissinger and their sons were Abraham and John E. The latter, b. 1799; d. 1867; m. Susanna Artz, and had sons Elias, Jeremiah, and Daniel. The other sons of the elder Benjamin Buffington intermarried into the Hoffman family, lived to be old men and had large families. Jacob Buffington, Sr., b. 1800; d.1873; was by occupation a mechanic, and one of the most expert hunters in his day. He married Mary Guntryman; and his sons were Isaac, Jonas, Jacob, Emanuel, and Levi. Solomon Buffington, b. 1819; d. Jan. 1, 1878; was a mechanic and farmer. He was a prominent member of the U. B. Church for many years and took an active part during the war of the Rebellion. Two of his sons were in the Union army. His wife was Margaret Matter, and their sons were Moses C., Edward, and Uriah.

Andrew Reigle resided on and owned the farm near the end of Short mountain, afterwards owned by his son Jacob. He was a soldier of the Revolution. He married in 1770 Catharine Hoffman. Their oldest son, John Reigle, was a justice of the peace many years and followed farming. He married Susan Sheetz, and of their children Simon resided at Harrisburg, and Obed J. in Williamstown. Daniel, son of Andrew Reigle, married Catharine Harman. Their son Daniel was a county commissioner in 1852, serving three years. Jacob, son of Andrew, married Nancy Hartman. Andrew, Jr., was a farmer and served in the war of 1812-14. He married a Miss Stine. Elizabeth Reigle. a daughter of Andrew. Sr., married Daniel Sheesly, and they were the grandparents of Sheriff Sheesly, of Harrisburg.

Mathias Freck was a native of Baden, Germany, from whence he emigrated in 1815. In 1821 he married Eliza Penrose, daughter of Col. Joseph Penrose, of the Revolutionary army, and the year after settled in Lykens Valley, locating first at Gratztown. Of their children Joseph M. Freck was a large coal operator, and resides at Pottsville, this State. Roland Freck was recently postmaster at Millersburg. John L. and Newton C. Freck are heavily engaged in the lumber business in Millersburg.

John B. Hoffman, b. in 1792; d. 1875. He was a blacksmith by occupation; had been a military captain and promoted to a lieutenant colonelcy, and served in the war of 1812-14. He was a prominent member of the German Reformed Church, holding the offices of deacon, elder and trustee. Politically he was a staunch Democrat. Colonel Hoffman married Margaret Bowman, and his sons were George, John, Christian, Josiah, James, and Peter A.

Benjamin Bretz was born in Lykens Valley in 1796 and died in 1878. He was a grandson of Ludwig Bretz, who was one of the first settlers in that region, a soldier of the Revolution, and wounded at the battle of Long Island in 1776. Benjamin carried on farming; filled the office of supervisor several terms and was prominently identified with the military. He was a member of the German Reformed Church and much honored and respected. He married Margaret Paul, and they had sons, John and Anthony..

Philip Runk was born in Lykens Valley, September 16, 1805, and died in January, 1873. His father came to the valley after the Revolution, and was one of the first settlers in Jefferson township. The son was a farmer, served in the military in early life, and a prominent member of the U. B. Church. He married Elizabeth Smith, and their sons were Jacob, Michael, and Adam. Jacob was at one time a presiding elder in the U. B. Church.

Adam Cooper came to Lykens Valley during the Revolutionary war, and was a private in Capt. Martin Weaver's company of Upper Paxtang, which marched to the relief of the settlers on the West Branch in the spring of 1781. He was a farmer and a great deer hunter. He married a daughter of Ludwig Shott, an early settler, and they had a large family. The late John Cooper, who represented Dauphin county in the Legislature in 1850, and who recently deceased, was a son. Connected by marriage to the Cooper family are the descendants of Jacob Schwab, or Swab, as now written. He was a native of Berks county, and died in 1866, at the age of seventy-five years. He married Catharine Metz, and of their children, Eli Swab filled the office of county commissioner two terms.

Daniel Etzweiler, Sr., was born April 12, 1800, and died September 15, 1878. He was a farmer, filled the office of supervisor two terms, served five years in a volunteer militia company, and was one of the founders of St. James' Lutheran and Reformed church near Carsonville. He was a great hunter, and excelled in deer shooting and the trapping of bear on the mountains. Mr. Etzweiler married Christiana Smith, of Northumberland county, and their sons were Jonathan, Daniel, Michael, Elias, Peter, Adam, and Henry.

Dr. Robert Auchmuty, the son of Samuel Auchmuty, was born near Sunbury, Northumberland county, Pa., in the year 1785. He was descended from an old Celtic family of Scotland. Robert Auchmuty, the first of the American family of that name, an eminent lawyer, was in practice at Boston, Mass., as early as 1719. He died in 1750, leaving several children. Among these, Robert, who in 1767 became judge of the Court of Admirality [sic] at Boston; Samuel, who was rector of Trinity church, New York city, and Arthur Gates. The latter came to Pennsylvania as early as 1765, and located in then Lancaster county. In that year we find him commissioned as an Indian trader, with permission to trade with the natives at Penn's creek, Shamokin and such other forts as may by his majesty or the Provincial authorities be established. He first settled at the mouth of Penn's creek, on the Isle of Que, and from thence removed to the opposite side of the Susquehanna, a few miles below Fort Augusta, in what is now lower Augusta township, Northumberland county. During the war of the Revolution Samuel Auchmuty, one of his sons, and father of the doctor, entered the patriot army, and was in service from the winter at Valley Forge until the close of the war. The veteran's remains rest in the old burial ground at Millersburg, unmarked and the spot unknown. Dr. Robert Auchmuty received a good education, studied medicine and began the practice of his profession at Millersburg about 1830-31. **Apart from the duties of his profession he served many years as a justice of the peace, being first commissione- by Governor Ritner. He was an enterprid ing, active citizen, and a warm advocate s- the common school system when that nobof measure was adopted, and was a gentlemale beloved and respected by his fellow citizenn He died at Millersburg in 1849, at the ags. of 64, and is buried in the new cemetery ae that place. He was the father of S. P. Auchtmuty, Esq., of Millersburg.**

Above passage should read: **Apart from the duties of his profession he served many years as a justice of the peace, being first commissioned by Governor Ritner. He was an enterprising, active citizen, and a warm advocate of the common school system when that noble measure was adopted, and was a gentleman beloved and respected by his fellow citizens. He died at Millersburg in 1849, at the age of 64, and is buried in the new cemetery at that place. He was the father of S. P. Auchmuty, Esq., of Millersburg.**

Hartman Rickert, an emigrant from Germany, settled near Short mountain at an early date; he died at the age of eighty-six years, leaving one son Hartman Rickert, Jr., who married Catharine Seebold. They were upwards of eighty at their death. They had children: Henry, m. Miss Romberger Martin, m. Elizabeth Yerges; Peter, m Miss Klinger; Jacob, m. Elizabeth Hoover All left descendants.

John F. Bowman was born in Lancaster county Pa., May 10, 1771. His father was a farmer, residing on Pequea creek, not far from Strasburg. John F. was brought up as a millwright, but subsequently entered mercantile pursuits. In 1809 he removed to Halifax, where he was a merchant from that period to 1830, when, believing a larger sphere of trade was opened for him, he went to Millersburg, where he successfully continued in business until his death, which occurred on the 6th of November, 1835. Mr. Bowman first married in 1794 a daughter of Isaac Ferree, whose farm adjoined that of his father. By this marriage they had the following children: Eliza, Maria, George Josiah, m. Elizabeth Rutter. Mr. Bowman married, secondly, in, 1805, Frances Crossen, daughter of John Crossen. They had issue as follows: John J., m. Margaret Sallade; Levi, Louisa, Isaac, Mary E., m. Rev. C. W. Jackson; Lucinda, m. Dr. Hiram Rutherford; Jacob, Emeline, Benjamin. John F. Bowman was one of the representative men of the "Upper End," enjoyed a reputation for uprightness and honesty, and highly esteemed by those who knew him. Genial, yet quiet and unobtrusive, he never sought or would accept any local or public office. His second wife, Frances Crossen, b. August 13, 1786; d. September 30, 1846, and lies interred beside her husband in the old Methodist graveyard at Millersburg.

Jacob Hoover settled in the "Upper End" in 1800; and built the mill now owned by Daniel Buffington. Of his children: Jacob, d. young; m. Miss Bellas; Christian, m. Miss Feagley; and their son Samuel was the first superintendent of the Short Mountain mines; he removed to Minnesota many years ago; John, m. Margaret Lebo; he owned the mill erected by his father; Mary, m. John Shoffstall; Katharine, m. George Kissinger; Mary, m. Jacob Bordner; Susanna, m. Henry Umholtz.

Abraham Jury.—Among the earliest settlers on the Wiconisco was Abraham Jury, or, as it is sometimes written, Shora. He was of French Huguenot descent, and emigrated from Switzerland about 1755. He located within the valley not far from the town of Millersburg. He was a farmer and took up a large tract of land. In the Revolution he served during the campaign in the Jerseys, and subsequently on the frontiers, as did also his eldest son, Samuel. He died in August, 1785, leaving a wife Catharine, and the following children: Samuel, Abraham, Mary, Magdalena, Margaret, Catharine, Susanna, and Salome. Samuel, we presume, either removed from the valley or died early, for Abraham, Jr., seems to have come into possession of the old homestead. The latter died in November, 1805, leaving John, who was of age, and Jacob, Hannah and Sallie, minors.

Rev. Charles Edward Muench. —Any historic record of the Upper End would fail of completeness without some mention of the distinguished "Dominie" of Hoffman church. We refer to the Rev. Charles Edward Muench, a native of Mettenheim, Wartenburg, in the Palatinate of Chur Pfaltz on the Rhine, Germany, born January 7, 1769. He was of Huguenot-French descent, his grandfather, Charles Frederick Beauvoir, fleeing France during the religious persecutions, and purchasing the "Muench Hoff," took his surname therefrom. Charles Frederick, the younger, was early sent to Heidelberg, where he completed his theological studies. It was just at the commencement of the general war in Europe, when on the occasion of his home being invaded by the French army he received and accepted a commission as captain of a company of huzzars [sic] in the Allied armies, in which service he was severely wounded by a pistol ball in the leg, and a sabre cut on the left hand. He commanded the guard that conducted Lafayette to the prison at Olmutz. On the 8th of July, 1794, he was promoted quartermaster under Sir Francis of Wiedlungen. On the very day of his promotion he married Margaretha Bieser. In 1798 he came to America, where lie taught a German school successively at Shaefferstown, Lebanon county, and Rehrersburg, Berks county. In 1804 he removed to Lykens Valley, at the Hoffman church school property; but discouraged somewhat at the wild appearance of the land, he went to Union county. Subsequently, in 1806, the congregation at Hoffman church requested his return, when yielding thereto, he once more entered upon the duties of his station. For a period of twenty-eight years he was a faithful teacher, and although not the ordained minister, yet very frequently conducted the religious services in Hoffman church, and officiated on funeral occasions. He was greatly beloved by the people, and his death, which occurred on the 8th of January, 1833, occasioned sorrow in many a household. His beloved wife, Margaretha, died in the following year, 1834, and their remains lie interred side by side in the graveyard of old Hoffman church. The Rev. Muench was exceedingly expert with the pen—had a refined artistic taste as to drawing and designing—and in the ornamentation of books and inlaying of furniture. He was a musician of no ordinary ability, and was an adept in all those essentials characteristic of the home culture of the Germans of the better class. Mr. Muench’s children were: Ju1iana, m. Jacob Wolf; William Henry, m. Eliz. Reed, of Northumberland county; Susanna Louisa, m. Jacob Riegel; Charles Frederick, m. Grace Leyburn, of Carlisle; Daniel Augustus, of Halifax, m. Lydia Smith; Jacob Dewalt, m. Salome Moyer; Margaret, m. Peter Miller of Halifax.

Simon Sallade.—There are few citizens of the county of Dauphin who are not familiar with the name and valuable services of Simon Sallade, one of the representative men of this district forty years ago, and concerning whom we have been able to glean the biographical data which herewith follows:

Simon Sallade was born near Gratz, Dauphin county, Pa., on the 7th of March, 1785. His father, John Sallade, of French Huguenot descent, was a native of Bosel on the Rhine, born in March, 1739, emigrated, with other members of his family, to America at an early period, and was among the first settlers on the Wiconisco. He died at the age of 88 years, in November, 1827, being blind about ten years before his death. He married on the 8th of February, 1771, Margaret Everhart, daughter of George Everhart, born in Berks county in 1747, and concerning whom we have the following incident. Upon the Indian incursions on the east side of the Susquehanna, subsequent to the defeat of Braddock, in the fall of 1755, she was taken captive by the savage marauders, near what is now Pine Grove, Schuylkill county. She was an unwilling witness to the scenes of murder and atrocity, when the merciless Indians tomahawked and scalped her parents, brothers and sisters, and beheld the home of her birth illuminating by its red glare the midnight sky, while only she of all her friends was left—and she a prisoner with the cruel and blood-thirsty savage. Doubtless there was some attractiveness of person or piteousness of appeal which saved her life. Of the wearisome years of her captivity among the Indians, west of the Ohio, we have little knowledge. It is not, however, until the power of the French on the beautiful river was broken by the courage and skill of General Forbes, that the little prisoner was rescued and returned to her friends in Berks county. She lived to a ripe old age. John Sallade had five sons and two daughters, Simon being next to the youngest. Simon Sallade, owing to the want of schools in those early days in the valley, was obliged to depend upon the educational instruction given by his parents, but being an apt scholar, it was not long before he mastered the main branches in a good education. He was a great reader, and, although books were few in those days, he read and re-read those falling into his hands. Later in life, toward manhood's years, he acquired considerable knowledge by the aid of a teacher, whom he and some of the young men of his neighborhood employed for that purpose. He was quite a performer on the violin and being of a social nature, he was often the center and life of many winter evening gatherings of that time.

Mr. Sallade was a mill-wright by trade, acquiring much of his proficiency in that vocation from an apprenticeship to Jacob Berkstresser, of Bellefonte. Many of the old mills within 30 or 40 miles of his home, were of his designing, and in fact the workmanship of his hand. A self-made mail, energetic, social and industrious, he became in time one of the most popular men of the Upper End.

His constant contact with the people of all classes in social life or business relations resulted in his taking warm interest in political affairs. Although a politician, he was such for the advancement of the public good. He was a Democrat of the old school, and when named for office, he appealed to the people instead of the party for support. He was four times elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. First, in the years 1819 and 1820, at the age of 34; next 1836-7, at the age of 51 years; and again in 1853, when he was in his 69th year. Each time the Whigs were largely in the majority in Dauphin county, yet always when put in nomination by the Democratic party, Mr. Sallade, save in one instance, was elected. This defeat was due in part to a letter written at the time to Charles C. Rawn, Esq., chairman of the temperance committee, in which he announced his opposition to the passage of the Maine liquor law. His letter was bold and outspoken. He did not conceal his opinions for the purpose of sailing into office under false colors. He might have done as latter-day politicians do, as did his opponents at that time—evaded the question and deceived the voter. Simon Sallade preferred defeat to deception—that the honorable career that he had made and sustained for political integrity and honesty should 1ose nothing of its lustre [sic] in his declining years.

During his term in the Legislature he was the author of what was generally known as the "Wiconisco Feeder Bill." To his zeal and tact, that important legislation for the Upper End of Dauphin county, owes its passage. Through this outlet the Lykens Valley coal fields were first developed. He was the superintendent for the construction of the Wiconisco canal, and held the appointment through the canal commissioners.

Simon Sallade died at the old homestead, near Elizabethville, on the 8th of November, 1854, and is interred in the village graveyard at that place. His wife was Jane Woodside, daughter of John Woodside, of Lykens Valley. She died September 3, 1854, and is buried in the same graveyard. They had issue as follows: Margaret, m. John J. Bowman, of Millersburg; Ann, m. Edward Bickel; Jane, m. Daniel K. Smith; Simon, Jacob, John, George, and Joseph.

There are many hearthstones, writes one who knew Simon Sallade well, and to whom we are greatly indebted for much of the information herewith given, in Lykens Valley, where the story of his sociability, hospitality, humor, honesty, and his many deeds of charit, are rehearsed by those of the fathers of the present generation who never saw or knew him, except from the traditionary [sic] history whiich is part and parcel of every family and community.

John Peter Willard, of Huguenot descent, was a native of Switzerland, born in 1745. He name to America as a soldier in the British service, but shortly after landing effected his escape. He then volunteered in the cause of the Colonies, and was with other deserters stationed on the Indian frontier or as guard of prisoners of war. At the close of the Revolution he took up a tract of land in Lykens township, called "Amsterdam," where he settled, began farming and subsequently married. He died in 1821, at the age of seventy-six. His wife died the following year (1822) aged seventy-seven. They left the following family: Adam, who came into possession of the homestead; his children, Joseph, John A., Henry B. and Adam, Jr., then divided the farm; part of it yet remains in possession of the descendants; Samuel remained in the valley, a farmer, and had a large family; Anna Maria married John Philip Umholtz.

The Lykens Valley Coal Development.

The Wiconisco Coal Company, named for Wiconisco creek in the northeastern portion of the county, was organized in 1831, composed of six members—Simon Gratz, Samuel Richards, George H. Thompson, Charles Rockland Thompson, all of Philadelphia, and Henry Schriner and Henry Sheafer, both of Dauphin county. They began work at opening their mines by drifts in the gap at Bear Creek, and sold coal in the vicinity in 1832. The first miners were three Englishmen—James Todoff, John Brown and William Hall, who came from Schuylkill county.

The Lykens Valley railroad was located by Mr. Ashwin, an English civil engineer, and extended from the mines in Bear Gap, sixteen miles, to the Susquehanna river, along the north foot of Berry's mountain. This road was constructed under the direction of John Paul, civil engineer, Henry Sheafer, superintendent, and Simon Sallade, director. The road was completed and began transporting coal in 1834 by horse power, on a flat strip rail. A number of ark loads of coal were shipped from Millersburg in March and April, 1834. Then the coal cars were boated across the Susquehanna, from the terminus of the railroad at Millersburg to Mt. Patrick, on the opposite side of the canal, in Perry county. This site was formerly owned by Peter Ritner, brother of Governor Ritner. Here the Lykens Valley company had a set of schutes [sic] on the Pennsylvania canal, where they shipped their coal to market. The first boat load of Lykens Valley coal was sent on Saturday, April 19, 1834, by boat "76," forty-three tons, Capt. C. France, consigned to Thomas Baldridge, Columbia, Pa.

Shipments continued in this manner until 1845, when the railroad was worn out, and abandoned until 1848. Then a portion of the railroad was regraded, and all laid with new "T" rail. The Wiconisco canal was built and shipments resumed in 1848, and have continued ever since. Up to and including 1858, the total shipment of coal from the Lykens Valley mines, from the beginning, amounted to eight hundred and forty-eight thousand, seven hundred and eighty-one tons, and the grand total shipments on the Susquehanna were three millions, two hundred and thirty-four thousand, seven hundred and eighty-one tons, which included shipments of coal by the Union canal and other avenues as follows:

The Shamokin railroad was opened in 1839.

The Dauphin and Susquehanna in 1854.

The Treverton [sic] railroad in 1855.

At this early day of the coal trade, this portion of the country was wild and seemed far removed in the woods. Lykens Valley is the broad expanse, three to five miles in width, of fertile red shale soil between the Mahantango mountain on the north and Berry’s mountain on the south, with the Susquehanna river as its boundary line on the west. Its eastern portion is a distance of twelve miles from the river, and is sub-divided into two smaller valleys, the main or northern one extending some ten miles east to the valley of the Mahanoy creek. The south portion is named after its early settler, Williams, who built a grist mill near Williamstown, also named after him.

Andrew Lycans, the Pioneer of the Wiconisco Valley.

In 1723 Andrew Lycans (not Lycan) settled on the Swatara creek, where he took up two hundred and fifty acres of land adjoining lands of Robert Young and Lazarus Stewart, and which was surveyed to him on the 4th of April, 1737. About 1740 he seems to have sold out, and removed with a number of others to the west side of tile Susquehanna, where he settled and made some improvements on a tract of land between Shearman’s creek and the Juniata, in then Cumberland county. This not being included in the then last Indian purchase, the Shawanese, who had a few scattered villages on the Juniata, complained of the encroachments of these settlers and demanded their removal. To pacify the Indians, the Provincial authorities sent, in 1748, the sheriff of Lancaster county, with three magistrates, accompanied by Conrad Weiser, to warn the people to leave at once. But, notwithstanding all this, the settlers remained, determined not to be driven away at least by threats.

On the 22d of May, 1740, after more decisive measures had been decided upon by the Provincial government, a number of high dignitaries who had been appointed by the lieutenant governor, held a conference at the house of George Croghan in Pennsboro' township, Cumberland county. Subsequently, accompanied by the under-sheriff of that county, they went to the place where Lycans and others lived, and after taking the settlers into custody burned their cabins to the number of five or six.*

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*NOTE.—We have before us the account of Andrew Work, sheriff of Lancaster, for removal of trespassers at Juniata," which is as follows:

"Dr. Province of Pennsylvania to Andrew Work, Sheriff of the County of Lancaster and Cumberland.

"To ten days attendance on the Secretary Magistrates of Cumberland, by his Hon'r, the Governor's command to remove sundry persons settled to the northward of the Kichitania mountains:

"To paid the Messenger sent from Lancaster at my own expenses . . . 3:7:0

"To the Under-Sheriff's Attendance on the like service. eight days, . . .

"To his Expenses in taking down Andrew Lycans to Prison to Lancaster other Expenses on the Journey, . . . 2:10:0

"Augt., 1750. AND. WORK, Sher.

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They were subsequently released by order of the governor of the Province, when Andrew Lycans removed with his family to the east side of the Susquehanna beyond the Kittatinny mountains, and by permission of the authorities, settled on a tract of about two hundred acres, situated on the northerly side of Whiconescong creek." Here he made "considerable improvements," which we learn from a document in our possession.

Until the spring of 1756 these pioneers on the Wiconisco were not disturbed in their homes, but following the defeat of Braddock, everywhere along the frontier the savages began their work of devastation and death. Their implacable cruelty was stimulated by the promise of reward for scalps on the part of the French, beside the further one of being put into possession of their lands. On the morning of the 7th of March, 1756, Andrew Lycans and John Rewalt went out early to fodder their cattle, when two guns were fired at them. Neither being harmed, they ran into the house, and prepared themselves for defense in case of an attack. The Indians then got under cover of a hog house near the dwelling house, when John Lycans, a son of Andrew, John Rewalt and Ludwig Shott, a neighbor, crept out of the house in order to get a shot at them, but were fired upon by the savages, and all wounded, the latter (Shott) in the abdomen. At this moment Andrew Lycans saw one of the Indians over the hog house, and also two white men running out of the same, and get a little distance therefrom. Upon this, Lycans and his party attempted to escape, but were pursued by the Indians to the number of sixteen or upwards. John Lycans and Rewalt, being badly wounded and not able . . .