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successful from the same cause, he abandoned his design to emigrate for the time; we have no further account of this brother, Robert.

[But I, Minnehaha Finney, make the guess, with reason, that some of his children emigrated to America.]

The journey from Philadelphia to Lancaster by land was little less perilous than by sea; there were no roads inland to admit of traveling by wagon and consequently locomotion and transportation was done by pack-horse.

The road from Philadelphia to Lancaster Co., Pa., had only been laid out and confirmed as the King’s Highway in Oct., 1735; winding through the forests and marshes across unbridged streams, the progress was slow and difficult; and very different was its condition from what it became in 1792, when it was changed to a turnpike.

Over the new road, then, we see in our mind’s eye the elder brother with his wife and those children born in Ireland and the youngest brother, Hugh, exuberant with youth and excited by the novelty of the situation, wending their way, the objective point being a Scotch-Irish settlement, on the Octoraro in Dromore Township, Lancaster Co., Penn.

They found their stopping place near Chestnut Level. This place was the metropolis of that Scotch-Irish settlement, and the seat of the church. Scully, in his semi-official map of the Province published in 1759 lays down at the intersection of a road from Lancaster and the site of the village, not its name, but "Presbyterian Meeting House."

The church had been organized several years previously, and was ministered to/by Rev. John Thomson who had been installed in 1732, a very prominent man in the Donegal Presbytery who took conspicuous part in the Grand Rupture of 1740, between the Old Side and the New Side which divided the Congregations and the Presbyteries, and was not healed for many years.

The following map of Lancaster Co., was copied from an original Map of 1730 of Scully after its organization and was as it was found by the emigrants on their arrival in the Spring of 1735, no changes having occurred in the mean time.

[The Map is Omitted]

The earliest settlement was made in the county by the Germans in the Pequea Valley, Lampeter, and Conestoga Townships in 1709-10, and by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians in 1717-1719.

The German element was composed of Mennonites or Baptists and Palatinates from the Rhine. The former came to secure that religious liberty and toleration which was denied them at home, the latter because their country and homes had been devastated by the armies of Louis XIV of France.

The Ferreas and Lefevers, -- French Huguenots driven from their native Strassbourg, finally found here on the Pequea in 1712 a rest where their descendants today till the same soil, conquered from the wilderness by their ancestors.

The Scotch-Irish commenced to settle on the Octoraro and in Derry and Donegal Twps. It seems a singular fact that while the Germans sought out the rich limestone land, on the Conestoga and Pequea creeks, the Irish generally preferred the rolling slate lands on account of the springs of pure water flowing from the hills.

After 1719 there seems to have been a stream of Irish emigrating into the Province.

In 1729, Secretary Logan, writing to the Proprietors, says "It looks as if Ireland is to send all her inhabitants hither, every day two or three ships arrive." Again he remarks, "In my experience in the Land Office, the settlement of the families from Ireland gives me more trouble than fifty of any other people." That last remark is an acknowledgment and an involuntary compliment to the empire, and to the bold and dark characteristics of the Scotch-Irish Race. Why Samuel Stewart emigrated to the




Province of Pennsylvania is a question we will hardly discuss; when the Scotch-Irish emigration began in 1717-19, the immediate cause is supposed to have been the refusal of landlords to renew leases on old terms, or on any reasonable terms.

The same cause might have operated upon him though we think that the force of example, the desire for liberty of person, for toleration in religion and advancement in material interests, were ruling motives. Nor can we assign any special reason why he should select the Octoraro region in preference to Deep Run in Bucks County, or Donegal and Derry in Lancaster Co.

After having been seized with the epidemic of emigration, we incline to the opinion that ties of consanguinity decided the question of locality; of course, nationality and religion would not have admitted of his settling elsewhere than among Scotch-Irish.

In the annals of Lancaster Co., we find that George Stewart settled on the Conestoga near the Susquehanna in 1719, Robert Stewart was coroner in 1759-60 and Sheriff in 1757.

A stone in Chestnut Level Graveyard tells the story that James Stewart died 1756 aged 54 years. Henry Stewart lived near Chestnut Level at a very early date, was buried in the Presbyterian Church yard in Little Briton; his children were Adam, who lived and died near Chestnut Level, and Alexander, born in 1768 who went to Shippensburg in 1797 to practice medicine and died in 1830. His daughter, Mrs. Jos. Mifflin, is the authority for these memoranda.

Robert, James and Andrew lived at Chestnut Level and died there in 1865, aged 80 years. Jane married a Long and Nancy married; the inference therefore is that among all these Stewarts there were relatives, but of what degree, there is neither record nor tradition.

[I, Minnehaha Finney, know nothing of the Stewarts mentioned on this page.]

The southern boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland remained indefinite until Mason and Dixon, English surveyors, finally ran it in 1767 and set up prepared stones at intervals of five miles. The early Provincial records contain evidence of the continental strife which existed previously, not only between the authorities of the Province but the citizens thereof, which manifested itself not only in acrimonious correspondence, but resort to arms and uprisal, always causing great alarm among the settlers near the border, and especially exciting them with regard to their land title.

Samuel Stewart held his title from the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania whilst some of his neighbors not so fortunate held Maryland titles, which subjected them to re-payment; it is said to be the fact that some Maryland titles for land in that part of Pennsylvania have come down regularly to this day.

In 1735 the aborigines divided into sundry tribes within the border of the County were more numerous than the whites and remained in undisturbed possession of their wigwams, although they looked with alarm at the rapid influx of the paleface they could not anticipate the few years which would elapse ere their extermination; they therefore cultivated the amity and friendship of their white neighbors and were ever ready to enter with them into friendly contests of feats of agility and strength and the sports of the chase.

The titles to Lands within the Province of Pennsylvania were acquired at various times by six different treaties.

The one celebrated under the Elm Tree, Dec. 14th, 1682 was the only treaty of importance held by William Penn, personally, and was merely a conference of amity and friendship.

The first deed to William Penn, dated July 15, 1682, was for lands on the Delaware and was called the "Walking Purchase." In our day it would have been pronounced a swindle. The second treaty embraced the






entire county lying in the south-west corner of the State, extending from the Delaware to the Maryland line on the Hibochinny Hills, but was not fully and satisfactorily confirmed by the tribes and nations interested and claiming ownership until Oct. 1736. Thus was the territory secured, which was embraced in Lancaster County. Although the Provincial authorities had been for eighteen years before acquiring undisputed ownership, pushing the enterprising Scotch-Irish Presbyterians out in the Wilderness.

By a third treaty dated Aug. 22, 1749, and for a consideration of 500 lbs. all the territory between the Hibochinny Hills and the Magoney Mountains and the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers was conveyed to the Proprietaries.

The Indian Tribe in the entire remainder of the State of Pennsylvania was in 1758-68-85 wholly extinguished by three other treaties, except a body of 640 acres on the Allegheny River and State line is held at this day (1876) by a remnant of the Seneca Nation. We can imagine the amusement and interest with which our emigrant ancestors regarded the Redman; a people so different in habit and appearance to themselves was calculated to excite intense interest and curiosity.

Opportunities for observation were of constant occurrence, but a Grand Council was so extraordinary and so rare as to become an event in their quiet lives; consequently the Grand Council held at Lancaster in June, 1744, between Lieut. Gov. Thomas of Penna., the Commissioners from Maryland and Virginia, and the Indians of the Six Nations, which drew together the people of the country from far and near, to listen to their eloquence of Conashtego and Tachanncontia, Native orators, was a memorable incident. The second Grand Council held in the Court House at Lancaster, July, 1748, between Commissioners of the Province and the Indians of the Six Nations, Delawares and other tribes, excited interest in the community. The celebrated interpreters, Conrad Weiser and Andrew Montour were present; Searrorryety was the principal chief.

Michael Hully, the grandfather of Mrs. John Lyon, (whose former wife was Margaret Elizabeth Stewart) was one of the signers of the treaty.

We are left to depict in our imagination the early life of Hugh Stewart, as he passed year by year under the guardianship and in the association of his elder brother and family, until his final settlement upon his Plantation in Peshtouk Township.

Although not in direct genealogical line, we will here make record of the Samuel Stewart Family, as they were then and afterwards so intimately associated with Hugh and his descendants, as far as their history has been secured from oblivion.

Samuel Stewart, son of Robert Stewart, was born near Glasgow, Scotland, in 1698, and accompanied his father to Ireland in 1720. He married in Ireland Mary McClay, who was remarkable for her dark complexion and large size, weighing 200 lbs.

Samuel Stewart was tall in person, large and well made, large Roman nose, eyes blueish-grey, and lively, hair deep brown, Scotch complexion. Samuel and Mary McClay had 12 sons and one daughter, as follows:-

1st. John, born in Ireland, moved to Marsh Creek Settlement, [Scotch-Irish] Adams Co., Penna. He was killed in the battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777.

2nd. Samuel. His family and that of Hugh Stewart, his uncle, became so closely allied by three inter-marriages between their children as to require a special record hereafter.

3rd. Elijah, born in Lancaster County, Penna. in 1738 [(Rev. War ancestor of Minnehaha Finney, Sterling, Kansas.), settled in Hanover Twp. in 1780. After his death in 1807, his widow (Mary Patterson Stewart) in Paxtang township, Dauphin Co., Penna., moved to Ohio with her children,





Sarah Stewart and her husband, James Finney, and her three sons and four other daughters, all settled in Butler, Clark and Trumbull Counties in south-western Ohio. (A few additions made by copyist, Minnehaha Finney, 1950.)]

4th. Mary, born in Lancaster Co., in 1740, in 1764 married Robert Patterson, moved to West Newton, Westmoreland Co., Pa. In 1792 had seven sons and two daughters.

5th. Andrew, born in Lancaster Co., moved to Hanover Twp. at an early day where he was killed by Indians in one of their raids.

6th. James, born in Lancaster Co., and finally settled in Allegheny Co., Pa. [Note by Mr. Barnett – Ancestor of Mrs. Jane Stewart Rankin, (Mrs. W. O.), 44 Parkside Ave., Lancaster, Pa. 1946.]

7th. Hugh, settled in Lexington, Ky., at a very early day and his descendants settled in Indiana. He was born in Lancaster Co., Pa.

8th. Joseph.

9th. Robert [I, Minnehaha Finney, have a record which makes what I think is this Robert, as being born in 1732 in Ireland, so would be only three years of age on arriving in America in 1735. He married Sarah Stewart and I have her dates and list of their children and it is my guess that this Sarah and Suzanna (Stewart) Finney, my great great grandmother, would be sisters, of which I think I can give proof. Also, I think that Sarah and Suzanna Stewart were sisters and daughters of Robert Stewart, who was a brother of Samuel Stewart, see page 2). (Added in ink by Maude Stewart – "Pages 1 and 4 and Hugh." On the side of the page written in ink is the following: "M. Finney. ‘The proof I refer to is that Sarah Stewart was a witness together with Samuel Stewart of the will made by young Elijah Finney, son of Suzanna Stewart Finney, (see will) Elijah died in his youth.’)."]

[This last paragraph concerning the descendants of Robert Stewart, number 9 has been added to the Bucher Ayers record by Miss Minnehaha Finney, of Sterling, Kansas, while copying the Ayres record and with an apology, but with a desire to clear up the Robert Stewart Record. So she desires to add further remarks at the end of this wonderful record given by Bucher Ayers of Philadelphia. I am underlining the names of the children of Hugh Stewart, since this is Hugh’s genealogical record.]

10th. Anthony. Died young. Of the 3 remaining sons there is no record. [(Note by copyist) Samuel Stewart, elder brother of 4th Hugh (to whom we now return.)] The exact date of Hugh Stewart’s settlement in Peshtaup (Paxtang) Township is unknown; that it was before 1750 is certain. The historian Rupp gives a list of taxables and early settlers prior to 1750, among whom are the McClures, Carsons, Baskins, Clarks (of Clark’s Ferry, and Clark’s Valley and Clark’s Creek), Cochrans, Gilbreths, Armstrongs, Fosters, Reeds, Williams, Calhouns, McKees, Elders, Harrisses, Andrew Stewart and Hugh Stewart are to be found.

Here he [Hugh Stewart] married in 1750-51 Mrs. [?] Hannah Dallas who was born in Ireland in 1727. [Hugh was born in Ireland in 1719.]

There were very few citizens of Paxtang Township of full age at that time 1750-51. Hugh and Hannah had 4 children: -

5th. Jane, born Nov. 1, 1751 in what was then Lancaster County, Pa.

6th. John, born July 2nd, 1753 in Pashon Twp., Lancaster Co., Pa.

7th. William, born in Pashon Twp. Oct. 21, 1757.

8th. Hugh, born Oct. 21, 1757. [This date should be Oct. 1, 1759. M.G.S.][Omit "Evidently Wm. and Hugh were twins." M.G.S.]

In 1760 Hannah Dallas [Stewart] died and was laid to rest in the old Seceder Graveyard, but new at the time of her death. We have no further record of this estimable lady.







Hugh Stewart married his second wife in 1764, Mrs. Nancy Moore, [M. Finney, "Her maiden name seems to have been Crane."] whose family name was Crain. Mrs. Moore had two children by her first husband who were named William and Nancy. William moved to Green Brier, Virginia, about 1778; Nancy married David Davidson and moved to Red Stone County, now Fayette Co. [, Pa.]

Hugh and Nancy [M.] Stewart had 5 children, namely:--

9th. Robert born Mar. 8, 1765, son of Hugh and Nancy Moore Stewart,

10th. Samuel, son of Hugh and Nancy Moore Stewart, Mar. 5, 1767,

11th. Joseph, son of Hugh and Nancy Moore Stewart, born July 10, 1769,

12th. James, son of Hugh and Nancy Moore Stewart, born Feb. 29, 1774,

13th. Mary, daughter of Hugh and Nancy Stewart, born Nov. 27, 1778.

Hugh, Sr., accumulated considerable estate and after the Revolutionary War lost much money in the depreciation of the Continental currency.

He assisted his first set of children in the purchase of farms in what was called Red Stone [Fayette] County, Pa.

He devised by will a certain farm to his son, Robert, he paying Mary, his sister, 200 lbs.; Mary, in addition received by bequest 350 lbs.

The homestead farm and residue of the estate he bequeathed to Samuel, Joseph, and James, appointing the last two his Executors.

The homestead was originally in Pashtauk or Paschen township, but on subdivision, which took place in the erection of the county of Dauphin in 1785, it fell within the border of Swatara near Harrisburg and Dowington Turnpike. Here Hugh died in 1798 at the advanced age of nearly 80 years. [Note by M.F., "I have visited this old homestead, a brick house which evidently had been a grand place. Also, I visited the graveyard located on the public road leading from Jonestown Road to the Harrisburg and Hummelstown turnpike, situated in Lower Paxton Township, Dauphin Co., Pa., five miles east of Harrisburg. I had looked forward to seeing the little spot where I had always believed that different ones of my own ancestors were buried, -- Elijah Stewart and Thomas Finney, my great great grand parents, but all I saw was a good looking granite monument, located in a small plot on the corner of an old farm, with names inscribed on it of quite a few pioneers whose broken-down head-stones had been scattered all about and the legible names collected and inscribed on the nice granite monument erected by the Harrisburg Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, desiring to honor many old Revolutionary War Heroes who had been buried there. But I did not find either name of my great-great-grand fathers who both had served his country long ago. Among the long list of names, however was that of Hugh Stewart, which on his original head-stone read as follows, as given by Bucher Ayers of Philadelphia:-

It reads:- Here lies the body of Hugh Stewart

Who departed this life 8th of October, 1798.

Aged 80 years

Also, his wife Hannah, aged 35 years.

Hugh Stewart’s ancestors having been Covenanters naturally assisted in (the) organizing a congregation of Seceders and establishing a church in which the family worshiped many years, which church and congregation have long since passed away, with nothing left but the little graveyard and since it has fallen into ruins there is nothing left but the D.A.R. monument, enscribed with the names of all that could be found on the scattered pieces of tombstones lying about. Personally, I am most grateful to these patriotic women." Minnehaha Finney, Sterling, Kansas.]

Hugh Stewart is represented to have been a very handsome man, above the ordinary height, complexion light, eyes light blue, features small and spare, but well formed, wearing a thoughtful aspect in repose, but animated in conversation. He retained through life his Scotch accent.

Note:- Peshtauk Township derives its name from the tribe of Indians who were found settled at the mouth of the creek of the same name, now within the